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  • 新東方網>石家莊新東方學校>學習園地>研究生考試>正文

    考研英語:閱讀解題秘籍

    2018-08-15 17:43

    來源:新東方網

    作者:新東方

      考研英語閱讀理解推理題主要考查的是考生的判斷、推理和引申能力。這種題型考查考生在現實生活中的閱讀技能即快速、準確推導出所需信息的能力,要求考生能夠 看懂題目提供的四個選項并在文中檢索相關信息。這種題目比較耗費時間,在緊張的考試中,容易給考生帶來心理壓力,因此面對此類題型考生首先要調整心理狀態,細致冷靜地返回到文章中,結合語境,運用邏輯思維去推導答案。這里請考生一定要記?。何鞣饺肆晳T用從個別到一般的演繹思維模式;不同于中國人的從一般 到個別的歸納思維方式。

      面對判斷原則的題目,考生必須先讀懂題目所給的四個選項,記住它們的意思,返回原文去掃描,搜尋信息點,與題目不相關的句子、語段很快掠過,相關信息語言區域則要求考生必須細致地對照原文中的信息,來推倒出相關結論。

      引申即為詞匯的內涵,與外延(字面意義)相對,是需要我們結合上下文即語境來理解說話人或作者的真實想法。例如,當你對你的朋友說:“咱們周末一起去吃飯吧!”而你的朋友回答道:“我最近有考試?!蹦敲丛谡G闆r下,你就知道對方沒時間和你度周末??梢娬Z境是我們理解話語(discourse)的試金石。并且引申也常常用隱喻的方式表達。

      一、推理題學習方法指導

      從廣義上講,幾乎所有的考研題都是推理題,不會從字面意思告訴你問題的答案,考研的試題追求的是對文章的深層理解及推理,所以從這個意義上說全部的題目都屬于該范疇。

      從狹義上看,該類題型指題干上有三個典型詞,即infer,implyconclusion。如:What can you infer from the story? What is the implied meaning of this sentence? We can draw the conclusion from the passage that, 推理性問題原文中沒有現成的答案。答案是你自己推想出來的,但不能憑空瞎想,必須以原文中某句話或某個詞語為依據去合理推測才能找到合適的答案。

      邏輯推理關系解題方法及步驟如下:

      1. 解題方法

      (1)要做好推理判斷題,要求考生能夠充分理解閱讀文章、分析語篇特征、尋找解題依據??忌鷳撛陬I會全文的基礎上做出正確的推理和判斷;

      (2) 要理解文章的字面意思,弄清上下文的整體邏輯;其次,在閱讀過程中要一定要留意那些似乎話中有話的間接表達句,它們往往采用說半句、打比喻、反過來講的方 式,留有讓考生自己作結論或推理的余地,同時要留意含義深刻或結構復雜的句子。同學們對作者表達的意思不能一下看透,它們往往是命題點所在;

      (3)要精讀題干,充分了解題目要求我們進行推理和判斷的內容,以免白費力氣;

      (4)仔細挖掘作者隱藏在文章中的一些重要涵義,切勿用自己的主觀判斷來代替文章內容。

      2. 解題步驟

      第一步:通讀全文,尤其是首末段,迅速得知文章的主旨大意;

      第二步:通讀選項,在每個選項下邊用筆標記本選項的大致中文意思,以做到心中有數,至少應該能知道可以供考生選擇的選項的意思范圍,并且在很短的時間里找到考生想找到的選項;

      第三步:迅速找到定位段落,重點關注定位段落的段落中心句和轉折等邏輯關系后的內容,因為推理引申題的答案一般的對文章或是段落中心句的同義替換;

      第四步:在時間允許的情況下,明確該題你所排除的選項的錯誤之處,進而進一步確定你所選答案是否正確。因為考研閱讀選的是最佳答案,考生最好是在全面衡量四個選項之后確定這個答案。

      二、判斷、推理和引申題的兩種題型

      1. 一正三誤

      一正三誤題型要求考生找出四個選項中惟一正確的一個。檢驗答案時要注意這種題型最常采用的三種命題方式:正話反說、反話正說和關鍵詞替換。

      1997年第64題:

      No company likes to be told it is contributing to the moral decline of nation. Is this what you intended to accomplish with your careers? Senator Robert Dole asked Time Warner executives last week. You have sold your souls, but must you corrupt our nation and threaten our children as well? At Time Warner, however, such questions are simply the latest manifestation of the soul-searching that has involved the company ever since the company was born in 1990. Its a self-examination that has, at various times, involved issues of responsibility, creative freedom and the corporate bottom line.

      At the core of this debate is chairman Gerald Levin, 56, who took over for the late Steve Ross in 1992. On the financial front, Levin is under pressure to raise the stock price and reduce the companys mountainous debt, which will increase to $17.3 billion after two new cable deals close. He has promised to sell off some of the property and restructure the company, but investors are waiting impatiently.

      The flap over rap is not making life any easier for him. Levin has consistently defended the company's rap music on the grounds of expression. In 1992, when Time Warner was under fire for releasing Ice-Ts violent rap song Cop Killer, Levin described rap as a lawful expression of street culture, which deserves an outlet. The test of any democratic society, he wrote in a Wall Street Journal column, lies not in how well it can control expression but in whether it gives freedom of thought and expression the widest possible latitude, however disputable or irritating the results may sometimes be. We wont retreat in the face of any threats.

      Levin would not comment on the debate last week, but there were signs that the chairman was backing off his hard-line stand, at least to some extent. During the discussion of rock singing verses at last month's stockholders meeting, Levin asserted that music is not the cause of societys ills and even cited his son, a teacher in the Bronx, New York, who uses rap to communicate with students. But he talked as well about the balanced struggle between creative freedom and social responsibility, and he announced that the company would launch a drive to develop standards for distribution and labeling of potentially objectionable music.

      The 15-member Time Warner board is generally supportive of Levin and his corporate strategy. But insiders say several of them have shown their concerns in this matter. Some of us have known for many, many years that the freedoms under the First Amendment are not totally unlimited, says Luce. I think it is perhaps the case that some people associated with the company have only recently come to realize this.

      The last sentence of the first paragraph most probably implies that.

      [A] Luce is a spokesman of Time Warner

      [B] Gerald Levin is liable to compromise

      [C] Time Warner is united as one in the face of the debate

      [D] Steve Ross is no longer alive

      第一段的最后一句暗示了什么?

      這是一個標準的三誤一正的推理引申題。正確答案:D

      2. 三正一誤

      三正一誤題型要求考生判斷哪一個選項與文章不符。檢驗答案時有兩種方式,一是正確選項所給的信息在文中根本沒有提到過,二是正確選項所給信息與文中其他內容相互沖突。

      1996年第56題:

      With the start of BBC World Service Television, millions of viewers in Asia and America can now watch the Corporations news coverage, as well as listening to it.

      And of course in Britain listeners and viewers can tune in to two BBC television channels, five BBC national radio services and dozens of local radio stations. They are brought sport, comedy, drama, music, news and current affairs, education, religion, parliamentary coverage, childrens programmes and films for an annual license fee of 83 per household.

      It is a remarkable record, stretching back over 70 yearsyet the BBC's future is now in doubt. The Corporation will survive as a publicly-funded broadcasting organization, at least for the time being, but its role, its size and its programmes are now the subject of a nation-wide debate in Britain.

      The debate was launched by the Government, which invited anyone with an opinion of the BBCincluding ordinary listeners and viewersto say what was good or bad about the Corporation, and even whether they thought it was worth keeping. The reason for its inquiry is that the BBCs royal charter runs out in 1996 and it must decide whether to keep the organization as it is, or to make changes.

      Defenders of the Corporationof whom there are manyare fond of quoting the American slogan If it aint broken, don't fix it. The BBC aint broke, they say, by which they mean it is not broken (as distinct from the word broke, meaning having no money), so why bother to change it?

      Yet the BBC will have to change, because the broadcasting world around it is changing. The commercial TV channelsTV and Channel 4were required by the Thatcher Governments Broadcasting Act to become more commercial, competing with each other for advertisers, and cutting costs and jobs. But it is the arrival of new satellite channelsfunded partly by advertising and partly by viewers subscriptionswhich will bring about the biggest changes in the long term.

      In the passage, which of the following about the BBC is not mentioned as the key issue?

      [A] Extension of its TV service to Far East.

      [B] Programmes as the subject of a nation-wide debate.

      [C] Potentials for further international co- operations.

      [D] Its existence as a broadcasting organization.

      下列哪一項BBC沒有作為一個關鍵問題提及?

      這是一個標準的三正一誤推理引申題。正確答案:C。

      由歷年考研英語真題可知,閱讀理解部分的試題中,大多數是針對段落的細節設計的,其目的是為了測試考生對組成段落的主體部分的理解。在每年的考試中,細節題的數量是最多的,大約占50%,其中涉及對文章中復雜句、列舉、例證、引用、轉折、因果關系等的處理,因此做好這類題至關重要。

      另外,細節題的測試在另一方面也可以考察考生對段落結構的理解程度,哪些是輔助論點,哪些是主要脈絡,只有對這些細節有一定的了解,我們才能更深入地領會文 章。文章的細節并不是孤立的,它總要與其他事實前后呼應,一般來說,作者總會把同等性質的事實放在一起,并借助不同的銜接手段進行組合,從而達到說服讀者 或闡明觀點的目的。其提問方式不外乎有以下幾種:

      The author provides following examples except

      According to the author, all of the following are true except (that)____.

      Which is among the best possible ways to?

      Which of the following would NOT be an example____?

      Which of the following is the LEAST likely?

      對于細節題我們要從詞義與語法(句法)著手,從這個角度來說,此類考題又可被細劃分以下幾個細類:

      1. 因果標志語

      表因果關系的標志詞可具體分為:

      (1)表原因

      because of, since, for, as, now that, seeing that, owing to, caused by, the main reason foris

      (2)表結果

      hence, thus, so, therefore, consequently, as a consequence, accordingly, for that reason

      2. 結論標志語

      in general, generally speaking, in short, in a word, to be brief in all, in simple words

      3. 轉折與對比題

      but, however, nevertheless, otherwise, dissimilarly, unlike, on the contrary, in contrast, in opposition to, on the opposite side

      4. 比較類型標記語

      similarly, likewise, in similar fashion, in similar way, in the same matter, just as

      5. 列舉標志語

      one anotherstill another, firstsecondthird

      6. 舉例標志語

      for example, as an example, as an instance, takeas an example, let me cite as a proof

      針對細節題,考生要注意分析句子和句子之間的關系,是因果、遞近、轉折還是什么?尤其要注意文章的第一句和最后一句,以及每段的第一句和最后一句與其它句子 的關系,體會每句話在文章中的作用。在閱讀過程中,要培養自己對文章主要討論對象、關鍵詞,作者和專家的觀點,以及語氣的把握。特別注意作者和專家的觀 點,專家和專家之間的觀點是否相同或相反或互補,以及作者和專家的語氣是贊成還是反對,是關注還是樂觀等等。如果是真題,還要仔細分析考點和正確、干擾選 項的規律、特征。在此過程中,可把文章盡可能的多讀幾遍,甚至翻譯一下,提高對文章中單詞、短語、句型等的反應速度,閱讀速度自然也就提高了。

      此外,閱讀的步驟也十分重要。許多考生拿到文章之后從頭讀起,讀完再去一個一個選答案。這種方法十分傳統,叫整體閱讀法。其優點是可以有一種全局感或整體 感。缺點是文章太長,讀后細節記不住,再去找答案又費勁又容易出錯,許多細節都混淆在一起了,得分經常不高。建議同學們用一下查找閱讀法:讀完第一段就做 第一題。然后看第二個問題問的什么,帶著這個問題去看第二段,然后是第三段、第四段,依此類推。(注意,有一種問題可能此方法不太適用,那就是:主旨性問 題)。查找式閱讀法雖然把文章看得支離破碎,但得分往往很高,因為剛看一段就去做一道題,這樣對細節會把握得很準。

      所以,閱讀理解并不是簡單的讀懂文章就可以把題作對,在對文中內容全面正確把握的同時還要審清題目,理解題目要求。

      2001Passage 1

      Specialization can be seen as a response to the problem of an increasing accumulation of scientific knowledge. By splitting up the subject matter into smaller units, one man could continue to handle the information and use it as the basis for further research. But specialization was only one of a series of related developments in science affecting the process of communication. Another was the growing professionalisation of scientific activity.

      54. The direct reason for specialization is _________.

      [A]the development in communication

      [B]the growth of professionalisation

      [C]the expansion of scientific knowledge

      [D]the splitting up of academic societies

      該題考察的是實行專業化的直接因素是什么,根據本文第一句即可找到答案C為正確選項,其中“as a response to”即表示的是因果關系。

      類似的解題思路可應用到以下文章中:

      What accounts for the great outburst of major inventions in earlyAmericabreakthroughs such as the telegraph, the steamboat and the weaving machine?

      Among the many shaping factors, I would single out the countrys excellent elementary schools; a labor force that welcomed the new technology; the practice of giving premiums to inventors; and above all the American genius for nonverbal, spatial thinking about things technological.(1996)

      1. According to the author, the great outburst of major inventions in early America was in a large part due to ________.

      [A] elementary schools

      [B] enthusiastic workers

      [C] the attractive premium system

      [D] a special way of thinking

      The researchers studied the behavior of female brown capuchin monkeys. They look cute. They are good-natured, cooperative creatures, and they share their food readily. Above all, like their female human counterparts, they tend to pay much closer attention to the value of goods and services than males. (2005)

      2. Female capuchin monkeys were chosen for the research most probably because they are ________.

      [A] more inclined to weigh what they get

      [B] attentive to researchers instructions

      [C] nice in both appearance and temperament

      [D] more generous than their male companions

      這兩道題共同的特點就是題目中都有一個表示程度的限定詞。第一道題中的限定詞是in a large part,第二道題中的限定詞是most probably,這兩個詞語的出現本身就有一個暗示,說明選項中應該有不止一個原因,但是題目要求回答出其中最重要的一個因素。原文定位第一道題,可以發現定位句“I would single out the countrys excellent elementary schools;a labor force that welcomed the new technology;the practice of giving premiums to inventors;and above all the American genius for nonverbal,spatial thinking about things technological”中含有四個并列成分,分別是“excellent elementary schools , a labor force, the practice of giving premiums to inventors”和“the American genius for nonverbal,spatial thinking about things technological”。上述四個內容在選項中都有出現,很多同學會因為先入為主的思維習慣選擇A。但是當我們注意到題干中的限定信息是要求找其中影響最大的一個因素,我們就要比照四個因素哪個影響最大。原文中的第四點前出現了above all,這個短語表示“最重要的是”,所以此題應該選擇D。

      類似的2005年的考題中也出現了同樣的情況,題干中出現most,選項中出現了列舉?!?span lang="EN-US">They look cute. They are good-natured,cooperative creatures,and they share their food tardily. Above all,like their female human counterparts,they tend to pay much closer attention to the value of goods and services than males.” 這些列舉也分別被設計成了干擾項。但是其中受到強調的是above all 后面的這個因素?!?span lang="EN-US">like their female human counterparts,they tend to pay much closer attention to the value of goods and services than males”,所以此題答案為A。

     

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